Sunday, May 17, 2020

Captain Morgan and the Sack of Panama

Captain Henry Morgan (1635-1688) was a legendary Welsh privateer who raided Spanish towns and shipping in the 1660s and 1670s. After the successful sacking of Portobello (1668) and a daring raid on Lake Maracaibo (1669) made him a household name on both sides of the Atlantic, Morgan stayed on his farm in Jamaica for a while before Spanish attacks convinced him to once again sail for the Spanish Main. In 1671, he launched his greatest attack: the capture and sacking of the rich city of Panama. Morgan the Legend Morgan had made his name raiding Spanish towns in Central America in the 1660s. Morgan was a privateer: a sort of legal pirate who had permission from the English government to attack Spanish ships and ports when England and Spain were at war, which was fairly common during those years. In July of 1668, he gathered some 500 privateers, corsairs, pirates, buccaneers, and other assorted seagoing villains and attacked the Spanish town of Portobello. It was a very successful raid, and his men earned large shares of loot. The following year, he once again gathered about 500 pirates and raided the towns of Maracaibo and Gibraltar on Lake Maracaibo in present-day Venezuela. Although not as successful as Portobello in terms of loot, the Maracaibo raid cemented Morgans legend, as he defeated three Spanish warships on his way out of the lake. By 1669 Morgan had the well-earned reputation of a man who took big risks and offered big rewards for his men. A Troubled Peace Unfortunately for Morgan, England and Spain signed a peace treaty around the time he was raiding Lake Maracaibo. Privateering commissions were revoked, and Morgan (who had invested his large share of the loot in land in Jamaica) retired to his plantation. Meanwhile, the Spanish, who were still smarting from Portobello, Maracaibo and other English and French raids, began offering privateering commissions of their own. Soon, raids on English interests began happening frequently in the Caribbean. Target: Panama The privateers considered several targets, including Cartagena and Veracruz, but decided on Panama. Sacking Panama would not be easy. The city was on the Pacific side of the isthmus, so the privateers would have to cross in order to attack. The best way to Panama was along the Chagres River, then overland through dense jungle. The first obstacle was the San Lorenzo Fortress at the mouth of the Chagres River. The Battle of Panama On January 28, 1671, the buccaneers finally arrived at the gates of Panama. The President of Panama, Don Juan Pà ©rez de Guzmà ¡n, had wished to fight the invaders along the river, but his men refused, so he organized a last-ditch defense on a plain just outside the city. On paper, the forces looked pretty equal. Pà ©rez had some 1,200 infantry and 400  cavalry, and Morgan had about 1,500 men. Morgans men had better weapons and much more experience. Still, Don Juan hoped that his cavalry – his only real advantage – might carry the day. He also had some oxen that he planned to stampede towards his enemy. Morgan attacked early on the morning of the 28th. He captured a small hill which gave him good position on Don Juans army. The Spanish cavalry  attacked,  but was easily defeated by French sharpshooters. The Spanish infantry followed in a disorganized charge. Morgan and his officers, seeing the chaos, were able to organize an effective counterattack on the inexperienced Spanish soldiers and the battle shortly turned into a rout. Even the oxen trick didnt work. In the end, 500 Spaniards had fallen to only 15 privateers. It was one of the most one-sided battles in the history of the privateers and pirates. The Sack of Panama The buccaneers chased fleeing Spaniards right into Panama. There was fighting in the streets and the retreating Spaniards tried to torch as much of the city as they could. By three oclock Morgan and his men held the city. They tried to put out the fires, but could not. They were dismayed to see that several ships had managed to flee with the bulk of the citys wealth. The privateers stayed for about four weeks, digging through the ashes, looking for fugitive Spanish in the hills, and looting the small islands in the bay where many had sent their treasures. When it was tallied, it was not as big a haul as many had hoped for, but there was still quite a bit of plunder and every man received his share. It took 175 mules to carry the treasure back to the Atlantic coast, and there were numerous Spanish prisoners – to be ransomed by their families – and many black slaves as well which could be sold. Many of the common soldiers were disappointed with their shares and blamed Morgan for cheating them. The treasure was divided up on the coast and the privateers went their separate ways after destroying the San Lorenzo fort. Aftermath of the Sack of Panama Morgan returned to Jamaica in  April 1671 to a heros welcome. His men once again filled the whorehouses and saloons of  Port Royal. Morgan used his healthy share of the proceeds to buy even more land: he was by now a wealthy landowner in Jamaica. Back in Europe, Spain was outraged. Morgans raid never seriously jeopardized relations between the two nations, but something had to be done. The Governor of Jamaica, Sir Thomas Modyford, was recalled to England and made to answer for granting Morgan permission to attack the Spanish. He was never severely punished, however, and eventually was sent back to Jamaica as Chief Justice. Although Morgan returned to Jamaica, he hung up his cutlass and rifle for good and never again led privateering raids. He spent most of his remaining years helping to fortify the defenses of Jamaica and drinking with his old war buddies. He died in 1688 and was given a state funeral.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Enron the Smartest Guys in the Room - 1989 Words

Enron’s ride is quite a phenomenon: from a regional gas pipeline trader to the largest energy trader in the world, and then back down the hill into bankruptcy and disgrace. As a matter of fact, it took Enron 16 years to go from about $10 billion of assets to $65 billion of assets, and 24 days to go bankruptcy. Enron is also one of the most celebrated business ethics cases in the century. There are so many things that went wrong within the organization, from all personal (prescriptive and psychological approaches), managerial (group norms, reward system, etc.), and organizational (world-class culture) perspectives. This paper will focus on the business ethics issues at Enron that were raised from the documentation Enron: The Smartest Guys†¦show more content†¦The fact that those ken lay, Jeff Skilling, Andrew Fastow, and other leaders decided to cross the legal line to cover up the company failures and to deceive investors lowered their stand in CMD even though they were actually considered extremely smart and successful businessmen. I personally think going against the laws is unacceptable in any circumstances, especially with those figurehead executives because they were the ones who set up such a bad culture for their organization. It’s hard to score those executives on Locus of Control. From my observation from the documentation, these smartest men were too confident about themselves. They always strived for the best. Actually, I believed they were the best in the arena. It suggested that they have high internal locus of control, which meant they absolutely have the ability to control their own life. However, at the same time, decision to go against the laws meant those leaders were gambling with their business, which is a high external locus of control behavior. Also, while internal locus of control people are more likely to take consequential approach in their prescriptive decision making process to reach the best solution for all parties, Enron executives chose to benefit themselves first off. Situational Factors Arguments above suggest that at the individual level, there are so many â€Å"bad apples† at EnronShow MoreRelatedEnron, the Smartest Guys in the Room.1229 Words   |  5 PagesEnron, the Smartest Guys in the Room. Enron was involved in American’s largest corporate bankruptcy. It is a story about people, and in reality it is a tragedy. Enron made their stock sky rocket through unethical means, and in reality this company kept losing money. The primary value operating among the traders was greed, money, and how to make profits under any circumstance. The traders thought that a good trader is a creative trader and the creative trader can find any arbitrage opportunityRead MoreEnron Smartest Guys On The Room1573 Words   |  7 PagesThe movie ENRON smartest guys in the room is about one of the biggest corporation corruptions in the United States. In 1985, ENRON Corporation, was a company that delivers pipeline for natural gas and electricity, while mergering with Houston Natural Gas and Internorth. ENRON quickly grew into a reputable company that generated enormous profits. In a short period of time ENRON was considered one of the top global trading company for natural gas, commodities, and electricity. According to the statistic;Read MoreEnron : The Smartest Guys Of The Room Essay1549 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction Enron was a Houston based energy, commodities and services company. 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It also considers steps that Human Resources would have taken given the chance, in addressing the issues that contributed to the collapse of the Company. Factor That Led To Enrons Downfall According to the documentary Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room, it seems that one major reasons that led to Enrons down fall was; unethical corporate behaviorRead MoreEssay about Enron: The Smartest Guys In The Room1948 Words   |  8 Pages it took Enron 16 years to go from about $10 billion of assets to $65 billion of assets, and 24 days to go bankruptcy. Enron is also one of the most celebrated business ethics cases in the century. There are so many things that went wrong within the organization, from all personal (prescriptive and psychological approaches), managerial (group norms, reward system, etc.), and organizational (world-class culture) perspectives. 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Christian Scripture and Hermeneutics †Free Samples to Students

Question: Discuss about the Christian Scripture and Hermeneutics. Answer: Introduction: The topic of this paper is to discuss about the scriptures in Christian religion and hermeneutics. The Christian gospels and sermons became to be used widely for the worshipping purpose very frequently. In the second century, some writings had been included in the list of Biblical writings and came to be known as the New Testament. The role of the scriptures has a special place in the Christian writings since they are the heart of the Christian religious concepts in a written form. Many Biblical concepts have been displayed through these scriptures. The Christian scripture mostly consisted of the letters from Paul and the edited version of the gospels and sermons of Luke. In this part of the document study, the viewpoints of many theology specialists have been discussed. One of them has to be picked in order to discuss about their viewpoints. In this discussion of the document study, the paper written by Francis Watson has to be selected. The name of the text is Church and World: Bib lical Interpretation in Theological Perspective. This piece has been chosen because he has shown that faith has to be kept in Christ always so that the Holy Scripture can be understood and mediation can be done between the God and the human beings. He has showcased the importance of scriptures and the hermeneutics better than all the authors of theology provided there. The canon of Marcion had portrayed a special challenge to the faith of Christianity. The Christian theology has been largely overviewed in this concept. The matters of salvation and its fundamental issues have been noticed in this section as well. The goodness in Christian faith has been discussed in this segment as well because in Bible, the goodness of the human beings has been displayed over and over. The matters of incarnation and its incarnation in the practice of Christianity have been overviewed in many ways. The docetic or the material side has a conflict over the interpretation of incarnation in Christianity. The Jewish writings have been segmented as the Old Testament in Bible and the new Christian writings have been segmented as the New Testament. These two parts of the Bible had been recognized as the scriptures and used for the purpose of worship to some level. The Old Testament has been viewed as the scripture that rises from the proper anticipation of Christ and in contrary; the New Testament had been viewed as a testimonial prophecy. The Christian theology has often said that the New Testament always brings something new in the array of the Christian theology as when the Christian scriptures have been incorporated in the Christian theology in a big way. Some issues have emerged in the reading of the New Testament because there are many confusing issues that have been raise in this context. It has been viewed as that the writings or the scriptures of the New Testament writings have been considered as the anachronistic ones since they are normative in the Christian perspectives. The writings of New Testament are not translations from the Old Testament and these writings are mainly based on Christ. The relationship between the scripture and time had been decreased to a certain level. Old Testament has always presented certain transposition hermeneutic in the matter. The problem had arisen that the theologians had viewed the world from one point but the topics related to Christianity but the scriptures had turned out to be the matter of study of Christianity. This can be contrasted with the Reform hermeneutics that the Old Testament and New Testament can be of an equal identity regarding to the Christian identity. This document study can be concluded by saying that scripture had been a legitimately dominating aspect in the Christianity and it was relevant for receiving the proper understanding the New Testament kerygma. The writings were not in line with the hermeneutical footing. Scripture can be used in interpreting the Biblical meaning in a more subtle way. References Baxter, M., 2015.The Formation of the Christian Scriptures. Fortress Press. Brown, R.E., 2015.An introduction to the New Testament. Yale University Press. Martens, E.A., 2015.God's design: A focus on Old Testament Theology. Wipf and Stock Publishers. Webster, J., 2016.Word and Church: essays in Christian dogmatics. Bloomsbury Publishing.

Monday, April 20, 2020

MY Favorite Band free essay sample

Most people thought they were a disgrace to musicianship, vulgar and obscene. In truth most of this is correct, and yet Metallic also managed to make beautiful music, sometimes playing the guitar and the drums so skillfully and timed just perfectly that they would sound like one instrument. Their guitar playing was so hypnotize that you could sit and listen to it for hours at a time. They could make you angry with one song and calm you to the point of sleep with the next.The lyrics to Metallic songs are very disputed, sometimes you might to even understand what they are saying and yet still get the feeling that they are trying to promote, in other cases you might hear what the words are but not understand the point Of what they are saying. For example in the song Saint Anger the lead singer is singing about how his anger builds up to the breaking point and then when it reaches the limit his anger explodes without even stopping to think about the consequences or the regrets he might have later. We will write a custom essay sample on MY Favorite Band or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In the song One it is hard to understand what he is saying except for the part where he speaks about a war veteran who lost his eyesight, hearing, and powers of speech when he stepped on a landmine. In the last few years Metallic has drastically changed their image. Gone are the days of long hair and swinging heads while playing the guitar gone are the many curse words and gone is the head banging edge of their music. Because of this, many of their oldest fans have stopped buying their new albums and just listen to some of Metallic many older albums.

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Social entrepreneurship Research Paper Example

Social entrepreneurship Research Paper Example Social entrepreneurship Paper Social entrepreneurship Paper Dr Yunus who founded Grameen Bank, which helps the people of rural Bangladesh to lift themselves out of poverty, Dr Yunus said, Grameens central focus is to help poor borrowers move out of poverty, not making money. Making profit is always recognised as a necessary condition of success to show that we are covering costs. Volume of profit is not important in Grameen in a money-making sense, but important as an indicator of efficiency. The way in which social entrepreneurs are funded is identified as social enterprise which Alter (2002) defined as a generic term for a non-profit business venture or revenue generating activity founded to create positive social impact while operating with reference to a financial bottom line. Many social entrepreneurs will spend the additional money that they make primarily on the people that they are trying to help and change the social situation and address its issues; secondly they will spend the additional money on advertising to raise public awareness of these social issues. Business entrepreneurs will also spend money on advertising; however this is usually to raise their brand awareness with the public with the ultimate aim to increase sales and to achieve high levels of profit. A similarity between social entrepreneurs and business entrepreneurs would be that they are both commonly accused of being more concerned with the impact and outcomes of their actions rather than the processes involved in making those changes. The pressures of quick results can force social entrepreneurs to look primarily at fixing problems in the short-term which can cause more problems long-term. This can cause social entrepreneurs to overlook any underlying causes of the problem. One example of this can be seen in the work by Mimi Silbert. Mimi started the Delancey Street Foundation, which created a place for substance abusers to be rehabilitated, educated and gave them a place to live. She started this cause in 1971 with a one thousand dollar loan which the aim of helping drug abusers, criminals and the homeless in her local area to make it a better and safer place. This organisation has withstood the test of time and after 36 years it is more successful than ever, receiving more than 10 million dollars in private donations every year. The success of this company is without question, however it makes no attempt to help stop drug abuse and crime problems before they occur, a way in which this could be done would be through campaigning and educating the younger population about the dangers of drugs. These are seen as the underlying causes which lead to problems such as drug abuse, crime and homelessness, Mimi Silberts work helps all individuals after they have already developed these problems. Many entrepreneurs, both business and social often have results which they did not intend, these results can sometimes make it very difficult to define whether and entrepreneur is business or social, for example, a business entrepreneur can start their business with the aim of making profits but their work causes a beneficial change in society. This person intended to become a business entrepreneur but unintentionally converged into a social entrepreneur. The same can be said for social entrepreneurs who have an original aim to address social issues, if they then become highly successful in their efforts it is very likely that they will start to make a profit linking them with business entrepreneurs. Another similarity between business entrepreneurs and social entrepreneurs are the way that they are perceived by the general public. Entrepreneurs of all types are usually associated with high levels of success; this is generally because the individuals behind companies are not heard of unless their business or social movement has become successful. This links in with the idea of entrepreneurs being all the same but different from normal people. As most entrepreneurs are only known publicly when they are successful they are related with certain personality types and characteristic traits, which make them successful when really anybody can become and entrepreneur in theory. A key difference between business and social entrepreneurs would be their different views on the concept of wealth. To a business entrepreneur wealth and profits would generally be classed as the same thing, this is because their main aim is to make money therefore they consider themselves to be wealthy is their business is successful and profit margins are high. Social entrepreneurs on the other hand classify wealth in a completely different manner. Social entrepreneurs class wealth in their work as creating a substantial and beneficial change to society which can be sustained over a long period of time. Social entrepreneurs class their wealth as an indicator of how much they of their work has been beneficial to the society. This also includes that any profits a social entrepreneur does manage to make has a positive Social and/or Environmental return on investment (ROI), this means that the profits are re-invested into the economy and to help more people, this is done because social entrepreneurs usually decide to help people due to an ethical imperative.

Friday, February 28, 2020

Are there advantages to treating a patient with a subarachnoid Essay

Are there advantages to treating a patient with a subarachnoid hemorrhage with endovascular coiling rather than neurosurgical clipping - Essay Example er to place an inert metal clip at the base of an aneurysm, removing this aneurysm from blood circulation and retaining the healthy part of an artery to supply blood to the brain. This procedure has been partially replaced in recent years by a relatively new procedure, endovascular coiling, which involves inserting a catheter through the femoral artery of a patient into the brain and using this catheter to fill the aneurysm with fine coils made up of the inert metal platinum, or other suitable material in order to strengthen and remove the affected part of the artery from blood circulation. Endovascular coiling has now becoming widely accepted because it is cheaper, less stressful for a patient and requires a shorter stay in a hospital, with generally lower absolute risks as compared to neurosurgical clipping. However, it is not possible to approach every aneurysm by endovascular coiling and depending on the location of the aneurysm neurosurgical clipping may still be required to be used. This dissertation presents a discussion about the relative advantage of using endovascular coiling as opposed to neurosurgical clipping as a treatment for SAH related aneurysms. Subarachnoid haemorrhage, or SAH, is a stroke subtype which occurs as a result of the rupture of either an intracranial aneurysm or an aneurysm in the basal cerebral artery which supplies blood to the human brain (Fassbender, 2001, Pp. 534) and (Kissela, 2002, Pp. 1321 – 1325). The classical presentation of SAH is a sudden and severe headache which is accompanied by vomiting, photophobia and neck stiffness (Whitfield, 2004, Pp. 14 – 16). However, it has been estimated that only one in four patients who suffer from such sever headache have had a SAH occurrence and that such headaches can also be the result of vascular—intracranial venous thrombosis, infections including meningitis, encephalitis etc, intracranial tumours, acute hydrocephalus or migraine etc to name a few other causes (Al – Shahi,

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

The Yellow Wallpaper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The Yellow Wallpaper - Essay Example (Gilman, 28) Drowning, however, transpires not only death or thrashing of self, but also a pursuit for discovering the self. Discussion The narrator's flaking away the wallpaper for finding the ensnared woman within is symbolic of her plunge into her own psyche, from which revisiting, rebirth, "surfacing," is doable. This rebirth connotes again the recurrent image of dying and death that is prevalent in The Yellow Wallpaper. The narrator moves down into madness before she can appear as justly and divinely sane. In her jump deep into the wallpaper, bearing the ‘repellent’ color that was almost ‘revolting’ (Gilman, 32), she discovers not only repugnant images of suffocation and imprisonment but also a mirror figure of her own ripped psyche. This equates death to some extent. The woman in "The Yellow Wallpaper" has a very slow demise. The story covers the summer months. She reveals several glimpses of her perceptions of her husband and his treatment of her. Alt hough she never mentions physical abuse, the reader is lead to believe John is very indifferent to his wife's feelings and needs. He seems to have very little time for her and does not really even believe she is sick. This gives some insight into why she might feel a need to escape. The writings about her slight hysteria give way to very disturbing images of her creeping along the walls of her room as though desperately seeking an escape. Because "The Yellow Wallpaper" is told in first-person format and from the central character's point of view, the reader is confronted with a vast amount of information about her emotions. In "The Yellow Wallpaper" the central character is a woman who feels trapped and is searching for an escape. That escape comes for both of them in the end, although it is not an expected form of escape. After all, nobody would expect to escape an unhappy life by plunging into insanity or by dying. Insanity may be called in some ways the intellectual death. But th at is the escape found by these two women. It is based on the repression of women in the 19th century and also exposes the pitiable state of equality of women in societies. Women have been considered the creature that can be suppressed and oppressed in the desired manner by the male dominating societies. Male chauvinism has always been exercised on women which is parallel to death of a real feministic survival in society. A woman has been considered a tool or instrument of satisfaction and no more than that. This is what may be called the death of a whole gender. Undeniably, this touches the topic of feminism and liberation of women from social stratification. The woman who was confined in the room fundamentally represents all women in society who strive for equal rights. However, the wallpaper replicates what the major character and women was passing through. By shredding the wallpaper down, the protagonist held that she could win her self-determination, which indeed happened at th e conclusion. The very title bears a great significant image of death or dying. Yellow is an emblem of lifelessness or in other words death. The fissures and markings on the wallpaper demonstrate the moans of women and the color yellow represent death or dying. The bed represents their marriage and the woman she saw behind the bars in the wallpaper